Reactive power compensation of the electricity grid with large-scale offshore wind farms in Sweden
InformationFörfattare: Agnes Bråve, Sara Särnblad
Beräknat färdigt: 2022-06
Handledare: Jimmie Elek
Handledares företag/institution: AFRY Management Consulting
Ämnesgranskare: Johan Forslund
PresentationerPresentation av Agnes Bråve
Presentationstid: 2022-06-02 13:15
Presentation av Sara Särnblad
Presentationstid: 2022-06-02 14:15
Opponenter: Emma Lindberg, William Clark
Year 2040 the goal is to have a 100 % renewable Swedish energy system. Svenska kraftnät (Svk) predicts fully decommissioned nuclear power plants and an increased amount of connected wind power plants, especially offshore, year 2045. These kind of renewable power plants are non-synchronous and do not provide the grid with the same system stability services naturally as synchronous generators, such as nuclear power plants. With the increased number of renewables connected, one future challenge is to maintain the stability of the power grid. Grid stability can be divided into voltage-, frequency- and rotor angle stability.
This thesis has investigated how large-scale offshore wind power plants (OWPPs) can contribute with reactive power compensation and in turn voltage stability to a nearby onshore power grid in Sweden. The evaluation has been done from the perspective of the TSO and the OWPP owner interests, with a focus on grid codes, economic incentives and technical capabilities.
This project has been made in three parts. First, a comparison of voltage stability control requirements in different European grid codes were made. Secondly, static power flow simulations of a case study of a 1000 MW OWPP have been performed in PowerWorld Simulator, testing the OWPP’s reactive power outputs under different circumstances. Thirdly, a market opportunity analysis has been completed, analyzing reactive power market opportunities for OWPPs as well as for TSOs.
The study shows that the reactive power capabilities of the simulated OWPP is considerable higher than the Swedish grid codes requires. Thus, an opportunity is to make the grid codes stricter, in combination with economic incentives. The case study showed that the distance offshore has an impact of the reactive power reaching the grid onshore. Though, the OWPP’s contribution to local voltage stability onshore is considered as good. Finally, with short- and long-term contracts, a reactive power market can be favorable for both the OWPP owner and the TSO.